18th century male gravestones in the Black Sea region Karadeniz bÖlgesinde 18. yÜzyil erkek mezar taŞlari

Halit Ç.

Turk Kulturu ve Haci Bektas Veli - Arastirma Dergisi, no.87, pp.103-151, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.31624/tkhbvd.2018.15
  • Journal Name: Turk Kulturu ve Haci Bektas Veli - Arastirma Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.103-151
  • Keywords: 18th century, Black Sea region, Gravestone heads, Gravestone types, Janissary
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: No


© 2018 Gazi Universitesi, Turk Kulturu ve Haci Bektas Veli. All rights reserved.In the present study, it is tried to evaluate the 18th century tombstones made for men in the Black Sea Region based on publications. A total of 5849 head and footstones in 13 provinces in the region were identified. 621 of these belong to men. Only those with definite dates were included in the present study. The scope of this study covers on the evaluation of the body and head types. There is no common methodology and terminology in gravestone research. Therefore, comparisons cannot be done healthily. Therefore, we selected the research on eight cities among different regions of Turkey and entered them to our database, and we concluded the comparisons of the body types in this aspect. The ratio of the tombstones for men determined in the 13 provinces in the region to the total of the 18th century is 71%. This ratio is the lowest among the other regions. In our region, the body sections are 95% of rectangle, 3% of square close to square, and round and polygonal are scarce. Apart from the high rate of square sections in Istanbul in 18th century and round sections in Edirne, this result is compatible with other regions. Comparing the tombstones with rectangular cross-section both in body and in head, which we have coded as D-I-1a, with a total rate in the region is 91%. In comparison with the rate of 93% of Kocaeli Gebze and Istanbul Ayrılık Fountain Cemetery, our region is third place. In other comparison cities, this rate ranges from 23% to 88%. There are three types of headings consisting of quilted turban, turban and cult headings. Turbans are the dominant head type of century with 60% rate. Quilted turbans are in second place with 37%. Taking in consideration that turbans were related to janissary, the Black Sea region in the 18th century has gained military significance because of the Russian wars.