Perceptions of hotel managers on future of all-inclusive system after COVID-19: the context of technology hygiene and cost cycle

DİKER O., Akbaş Tuna A., Uysal M., Tuna M.

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol.13, no.4, pp.573-589, 2022 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/jhtt-07-2021-0194
  • Journal Name: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, CAB Abstracts, Hospitality & Tourism Complete
  • Page Numbers: pp.573-589
  • Keywords: All-inclusive system, Cost, COVID-19, Hygiene, Technology
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.Purpose: The all-inclusive system comprises a large share of supply and demand in the worldwide tourism market. All-inclusive system investments occupy a large place in the Mediterranean coastline, especially in Turkey. The risk that may arise for hotels operating with the all-inclusive system will affect the whole market in terms of supply and demand. The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of the managers regarding the changes that may occur in demand and supply in the all-inclusive system after the COVID-19 pandemic and their consequences without disturbing the cost balance in an all-inclusive system. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted by using an online interview method with a semi-structured interview form that includes questions on the effects of COVID-19 on all-inclusive systems. Obtained data were analyzed by using content analysis methods. Findings: The findings suggest that COVID-19 directly or indirectly influences visitor expectations and behavior, use of physical space and services provided in all-inclusive system within the technology, hygiene and cost cycle. Because of the effect of COVID-19, there have been important alterations in the use of physical space and service contents. Related changes brought about the pressure to reduce costs. Ensuring the managerial balance for these costs, which cannot be subsidized with direct prices, will provide priority with regard to both competitive advantages and managing the risk perception. Originality/value: There are limited studies on all-inclusive systems and operations. Additionally, there is a lack of studies based on managers’ perceptions of the future of all-inclusive. This study contributes toward a better understanding of perceptions about the future of high-demand all-inclusive systems within the effect of COVID-19 through the eyes of hotel managers. This study differs from existing literature by attempting to determine new ways to enrich service contents for risk management without changing cost structure and revealing strategies for effective sustainability of all-inclusive systems.