One of the main purposes of the Tanzimat Edict (1839) was the centralization of the Ottoman provincial administration. However, in the port cities of the Eastern Mediterranean which were strategically important, such as Mount Lebanon, there were significant obstacles to the centralization policy at both local and international scale. This article aims to evaluate the establishment process of the dual kaim makamate (district governorship) system of Mount Lebanon (1845), within the framework of the 19th century balance of power system and the concert of Europe. In this context, after mentioning to the distinctive conditions of the region, the provincial reform program of Tanzimat has been underlined. And then, in order to carry out this policy in Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Porte's diplomacy towards European Concert has been examined.