Does energy intensity matter in the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth regarding capital-energy substitution?

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Aydin C., Onay R. D., Şahin İ.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.29, no.58, pp.88240-88255, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 58
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-21927-y
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.88240-88255
  • Keywords: Economic growth, Energy consumption, Energy intensity, PSTR, Substitution elasticity, VES production function
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.This article investigates how the non-linear connection between energy consumption and economic development is influenced by energy intensity level in the context of energy-capital substitution. We firstly analyze the substitutability/complementarity between energy and capital by estimating VES production function within the standard Solow growth model framework for 58 countries over the period of 1975–2017. The selected countries are classified into four groups according to their relative energy intensity levels and their accessibility to energy. The estimation findings reveal that energy and capital are complements in the final output for each country group. Hence, in this paper, as further analysis, the study examines whether or not energy consumption always fosters economic growth. We investigate the non-linear link between energy consumption and economic development by constructing a panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model for each country group and looking at the impact of energy intensity in this relationship. The empirical results provide that for each country group, there is a threshold level for energy intensity. Regardless of whether a country is a net energy exporter or net energy importer, it needs to use energy efficiently and not exceed the ideal energy intensity level in both production and consumption to maintain long-term economic growth.