© CSIRO 2017.An increase in aquaculture production may have positive effects on both food resources and a country's economy. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most common cyprinid species in Turkey and accounts for approximately one-fifth of total inland water aquaculture production. However, carp production in Turkey has decreased in recent years. Changes in carp population of Hirfanli Dam were compared with previous studies in similar and different habitats worldwide. The population structure, growth and reproduction of carp were investigated. The length-weight relationships for the carp population of Hirfanli Dam indicated negative allometric growth in males and females, but the condition factor was greater for these carp than carp elsewhere. Asymptotic length and the growth coefficient were 89.42cm and 0.071year-1. Fecundity was positively correlated with fork length, total weight, gonad weight and age. The carp population of Hirfanli Dam evaluated in the present study appeared to have a lower fecundity and smaller egg diameter compared with other carp populations.