Olba, vol.27, pp.41-60, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2019 Mersin University. All rights reserved.The region Cappadocia is located in southeastern Central Anatolia and has a significant place in history. This region which is called as "Volcanic Cappadocia" by geologists occurred by the volcanic activities that began 25 million years ago. After the volcanic eruptions of Hasan, Erciyes, Melendiz, Göllü and Nenezi mountains, the accumulation of the volcanic ashes and lava was hardened by rains and eroded by winds and floods; thereafter today's unique geography was formed. Before 1950's some scholars believed that Central Anatolia was not inhabited before the Bronze Ages. After James Mellaart's surveys and his excavations at Çatalhöyük in the Konya plain, the attitude about the prehistory of Central Anatolia changed. In the 1960's Ian Todd's comprehensive surveys in this region revealed significant results about the existence of some prehistoric sites in Cappadocia. In the 1980's Aşikli Höyük excavations started due to the Mamasin Dam Project and in the following years Musular excavations in Aksaray, Tepecik Çiftlik, Kömürcü Kaletepe Obsidian Workshop and Köşk Höyük excavations in Niǧde presented crucial information about the Cappadocian Neolithic. The role of Nevşehir in the Cappadocian Neolithic has been known from the survey projects. During Todd's and Gülçur's surveys on the areas of Acigöl and Ürgüp some obsidian resources and a few prehistoric sites were revealed. Sofular Höyük which is located in the province of Ürgüp, 3 km northeast of the village Sofular was discovered by Prof. Dr. Okşan Başoǧlu during her survey project in 2011. The existence of the chipped stone and ground stone materials on the mound indicate the presence of an archaeological fill. Moreover, the existence of some illicit dig pits requires an immediate excavation in order to prevent the destruction on the mound. Archaeological excavations at Sofular Höyük started in 2016 by Prof. Dr. Okşan Başoǧlu (Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University, Archaeology Department) and Asst. Prof. Dr. Fevzi Volkan Güngördü (Nevşehir Haci Bektaş Veli University, Archaeology Department). Excavations between 2016-2018 seasons at Sofular Höyük point out the existence of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period on the mound by means of the miscellaneous findings. Sofular Höyük is the first excavated Pre-Pottery Neolithic site on the edge of the Kizilirmak River in Cappadocia. The Cappadocian Pre-Pottery Neolithic Period is defined based on the excavations which are lead on the edge of the Melendiz River. Therefore, due to its unique location Sofular Höyük can be seen as a new evaluation point for the Cappadocian Pre-Pottery Neolithic.