ZAWIYAHS, DERBENDS AND SINGLE-SPAN ARCHED BRIDGES WHICH ARE STANDING TODAY AND PROVIDED ROAD & BRIDGE SERVICE IN THE REGION OF EASTERN BLACK SEA FROM THE CONQUEST TILL END OF 19th CENTURY


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BAŞKAN S.

SANAT TARIHI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY, vol.28, no.2, pp.483-519, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.29135/std.598914
  • Journal Name: SANAT TARIHI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.483-519
  • Keywords: Eastern Black Sea, Zawiyahs, Lodges, Derbend, Arched Bridge

Abstract

In this article, the zawiyahs and derbends as organizations that served the road and bridge construction services in the Eastern Black Sea from the 12th century as the first Turkish-Islamic colonization period of Anatolia until the last century of the Ottoman Empire, and the examples of this architectural tradition formed within the functional regional stages of these organizations in the region have been addressed. The contributions made to the Turkish culture in Anatolia by the Turkic tribes and clans migrated from the Central Asia to the west with a rich collection of cultural and traditional assets, and the ones made by the lodges, zawiyahs and derbends as a reflection of an ancient heritage when they were founded were discussed in the study. Within this context, the basic questions about these outstanding works of the regional and local art of construction, which had to be rebuilt after every disastrous flood in the region throughout the centuries were answered. In other words, revealing the architectural features of arch bridges together through spatial and functional organizations formed in the unique mystical environment of the changing and transforming conditions of the changing military-political conditions of the Middle Ages and the socio-cultural and economic relations of the Middle Ages was considered as a methodology. When talking about lodges and zawiyahs, the issue was addressed from a socio-cultural perspective, prioritizing the projection of architecture and the history of art but the relationship between Islamic-oriented religious organizations and especially the development of Islamic sub-philosophies in medieval Turkish societies were not discussed. The bridges are one of the most important products of the settled life culture and the experiences in the deep valleys of this geography with the conquest of the Eastern Black Sea in the 15th century. In particular, these structures and the architectural memory about them, which have been discussed within the scope of history in this study, were inherited from generation to generation as material and spiritual heritage.