Multidirectionality(ies) in the Turkish Foreign Policy: Compensatory, Complementary and Reactive Multidirectionality

Özyilmaz Kiraz B.

Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, vol.25, no.3, pp.558-581, 2023 (Scopus) identifier


© 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.This article is concerned with multidirectionality in the Turkish foreign policy (TFP). It discusses how multidirectionality attempts in the TFP in different times, with different purposes and instruments can be differentiated and conceptualized. It is argued that there have been three waves of multidirectionality in the TFP: compensatory multidirectionality in the 1960s and 1970s; complementary multidirectionality from the end of the Cold War approximately till 2015; and reactionary multidirectionality since 2015. They are analysed through a comparative perspective in terms of the causative role of the Western factor, the main motivation behind and foreign policy instruments employed. It is further argued in the article that contrary to the conventional wisdom states can adopt multidirectionalism as a mean to further enhance their relations with the ‘direction’ state or alliance. In this sense, beyond its contribution to the TFP literature, the article makes contribution to the Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) in general.