Safeguarding Approaches in Folklore and Intergenerational Transmission in the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage


OĞUZ M. Ö.

MILLI FOLKLOR, no.132, pp.5-15, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Journal Name: MILLI FOLKLOR
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.5-15
  • Keywords: Folklore collections, folklore archives and museums, applications in folklore, participation of groups and communities, living cultural heritage

Abstract

Folklore, since the early periods of enlightenment in which it found its way into social sciences and humanities, has continued its development through two powerful ways and movements: Researching the cultural past and origin of humanity on the one hand, and constructing a new national identity, making use of vanishing sources of oral culture on the other. By way of collecting and storing data in the form of "compilation", "publishing", "archiving", "museum", these two perspectives served to protect folklore with new productions with the help of "application", a method to support new identity building which was mostly carried out by noncommunity members. However, it has turned out that, even if there is a scientific or artistic equivalent, application models such as the "preservation", "storing", "conservation", "imitation", "inspiration" or "utilization" of folkloric products don't represent sustainable safeguarding based on "transmission", production" and "revitalization" by and in communities. With the emerging of social, cultural and economic phenomena such as industrialization, urbanization, migration, modernization or globalization, the consideration that communities are not able to protect their living culture that is passed on through generations and make up their cultural identities has paved the way for new pursuits on safeguarding of culture. During these searches, the efforts for safeguarding of tangible and intangible cultural heritage carried out at UNESCO have attracted a great deal of attention from states, scientists and civil society. Debates and the traction gained by the Recommendation on the Protection of Traditional Culture and Folklore adopted in 1989 and following this experience, Living Human Treasures (1994) and Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (1997) have led the preparation of a new convention on this matter. Thus, 2003 Convention, pointing out the inadequacy of methods to generate documents and inspiration for science and arts in the safeguarding of folklore, has developed a new safeguarding model that focuses on intergenerational transmission through formal, non-formal and informal education and revitalization by and for communities. The Convention aspires the viability of intangible cultural heritage elements to maintain cultural identity and belonging and sustainable development of communities. And in line with purpose, this document identifies inventories, education and participation on national level and cooperation and listing processes on international level. Scientists keep the track of this safeguarding method which started with first inscriptions on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 and applications of international community and discuss opportunities and problems. Albeit few in number, scientists in Turkey monitor the outcomes and problems of activities and work related to transmission of intangible cultural heritage in community on different levels. It is possible to get more stimulating and interpretable results with the accompany of scientific studies on national and international operations and actions.