China's Charm Defensive: Image Protection by Acquiring Mass Entertainment

Eliküçük Yıldırım N., Aslan M.

Pacific Focus, vol.35, no.1, pp.141-171, 2020 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/pafo.12153
  • Journal Name: Pacific Focus
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Political Science Complete
  • Page Numbers: pp.141-171
  • Keywords: soft power, charm defensive, Chinese foreign direct investments, entertainment sector, SOFT POWER, PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: Yes


© 2020 Center for International Studies, Inha UniversityFocusing on discussion of China's soft power resources, this article argues that China performs two kinds of soft power strategies in developing and developed countries: offensive and defensive, respectively. While China's charm offensive aims to consolidate her comprehensive power through a development model, aid, investment, traditional culture, foreign policy, and international broadcasting in developing countries, the defensive aspect of China's soft power strategy aims to soften the rise of China with traditional culture by introducing appealing parts of Chinese culture through investments and international broadcasting in Western countries. China applies classical soft power tools in developing countries while she endeavors to protect her image in Western countries defensively. China's alternative defensive approach to soft power is mostly implemented through the acquisition of media outlets, and via the entertainment sector and gaming industry by Chinese-owned companies. However, even in the defensive and offensive bifurcation, if charm attacks result in failure, China could turn take a defensive stance in developing countries.