A research on the relationship between tourism and migration

Sarı Ö., Meydan Uygur S.

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/jhti-09-2022-0431
  • Journal Name: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, ABI/INFORM
  • Keywords: Migration, Tourism, Tourism market, Tourism-migration relationship, Turkey
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Although it is assumed that migration and tourism directly affect each other, neither has received enough attention in the literature. Moreover, the relationship between them remains unclear. The UNWTO interprets said relationship in two ways: tourism-led migration (TLM) and migration-led tourism (MLT). The latter is crucial for the marketing of tourism. This study aims to clarify the migration-tourism relationship in ways the relevant literature has inadequately addressed and to evaluate the significance of MLT for Turkey's tourism marketing. Design/methodology/approach: The study was carried out with a qualitative research design. Document scanning was used to collect data. A time series analysis was performed based on secondary data. Vector autoregressive models (VARs), which test the relationship between two or more variables, were preferred in the analysis selection. The empirical evidence depends on annual data of German tourists visiting Turkey and persons admitted to Germany from 2006 to 2019. Findings: The findings of the study revealed a significant short-term relationship between those immigrating to Germany and tourists visiting Turkey. Practical implications: The research shows that migration is a factor in the purchasing behavior of touristic products. In this respect, the practical conclusion of the study reveals that it may be beneficial for national tourism marketers in these countries to promote touristic products through citizens who have migrated abroad. Originality/value: In the relevant literature, the relationship between tourism and migration (RTM) has been limitedly examined from an MLT perspective. In this respect, the subject has not been examined in detail in many respects (distribution by years, various sampling and data collection technique, etc.). The present research helps fill this literature gap by addressing the subject directly.