The opening formula in tales: The case of idel-ural (tatar and bashkir) tales Masallarda başlayiş formelleri: Idil-ural (tatar ve başkurt) masallari örneği*

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Karagöz E.

Milli Folklor, vol.2020, no.128, pp.60-75, 2020 (AHCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2020 Issue: 128
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Journal Name: Milli Folklor
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Sociological abstracts, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.60-75
  • Keywords: Bashkir, Formula, Narrative, Tale, Tatar
  • Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University Affiliated: Yes


© 2020, Milli Folklor Dergisi. All rights reserved.In this study, the opening formula of Tatar and Bashkir Turks, who live in Idel-Ural Region, and their classification are discussed. A classification experiment was made for typology, and its applicability for the narratives from the Turkic world was tested through the opening formula. For this reason, the following steps were completed in this study, respectively. In the introduction part, it was first emphasized that the Turkish world has a very deep and rich narrative tradition in a wide geography, and it was underlined that the narrators used the formula in these narratives in similar ways. However, the problem of not being able to classify these formula and their usage variety with a method that can be improved and contributed has been addressed. Then, a general information was provided about the history of the geography, in which the tales examined in this study are told, and the owner of this geography, Tatar and Bashkir Turks; it was advocated that the studies on these two Turkic peoples should not be addressed separately. In the first part of the study, in line with the opinions of some scholars working on formula forms in types of oral narratives, the question of “What is formula as a folklore term?” was sought an answer, and this term is explained as “Remarkable and special forms of expres-sion with certain duties told when opening the narration by the narrator, connecting the events in the narration or transitioning between the events, and making analogies in the narrative and finishing the narrative.” In the second part, firstly, information about “The Opening formula in Tales” is provided. The opening formula were divided into three types as “plain”, “with words of time” and “with rhymes” based on the characteristics of their styles. The reason for this differentiation was explained along with the examples of opening formula. After-wards, detailed information about these three styles of opening formula was given under the sub-headings, respectively; attention was drawn to their characteristics of use. In the third part of the study, a classification experiment was conducted on the “Classification of the Opening Formula in Tatar and Bashkir Tales”. Before this experiment, information was given on the classifications of Stith Thompson and Saim Sakaoğlu. In the classification, Thompson’s alphabetical numbering method in his Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (MIFL) was blended with Sakaoglu’s technique of denominating items, considering the possible opening formula that could be added later; thus, the opening formula in Tatar and Bashkir tales are classified. However, the resulting classification was presented in an original form independent of these two studies; and it was applied for the first time in the present study. Before the implementation, the scope was specified by giving information about the benchmark tales, and the step followed in the implementation was explained. In the application part, the opening formula in the 60 Tatar and 60 Bashkir fairy tales are shown by selecting one of the samples of the same type under the relevant items of the classification. These examples are provided with the Latinized form of the original Cyrillic version, translated to Turkish used in Turkey. The remaining similar examples are shown by giving the page numbers in the books in which they are included. During classification and sampling, the specific Turkic peoples to which the tales belong such as Tatar and Bashkir, are shown under the relevant item. However, in the conclusion part, the data and findings obtained were evaluated as a whole. In the conclusion part, a table was created before proceeding to the review. The table presented the usage forms of the opening formula used in Tatar and Bashkir tales within an order from general to specific; the numbers of usage were written next to them. Reviews were made based on these numerical/statistical data. Three pie charts were prepared and the percentages indicating the frequencies regarding the usage of opening formula were found.